J Bone Jt Infect 2019; 4(5):238-244. doi:10.7150/jbji.37757

Research Paper

Evaluation One Year after DAIR Treatment in 91 Suspected Early Prosthetic Joint Infections in Primary Knee and Hip Arthroplasty

Anouk M.E. Jacobs1,2✉, Lucia J.J. Valkering1, Menno Bénard2, Jacques F. Meis3,4, Jon H.M. Goosen1

1. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Prosthetic Joint Infection Unit, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, the Netherlands
2. Sint Maartenskliniek Research, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, the Netherlands
3. Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Canisius-Wilhelmina Ziekenhuis, Nijmegen, the Netherlands
4. Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
Jacobs AME, Valkering LJJ, Bénard M, Meis JF, Goosen JHM. Evaluation One Year after DAIR Treatment in 91 Suspected Early Prosthetic Joint Infections in Primary Knee and Hip Arthroplasty. J Bone Jt Infect 2019; 4(5):238-244. doi:10.7150/jbji.37757. Available from http://www.jbji.net/v04p0238.htm

File import instruction


Introduction: Early recognition and appropriate initial treatment with debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR) if a suspicion of an early prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is present can eradicate infection on first attempt and prevent implant failure. We evaluated the outcome after 1 year of patients treated with DAIR after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA). Furthermore, we determined preoperative, microbiology, and treatment factors related to failure after DAIR.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was assembled with 91 patients undergoing DAIR with a high suspicion of an early PJI. Records were reviewed for demographics, preoperative laboratory results, microbiological data, given treatment and postoperative follow-up. The primary outcome was infection-free implant survival at 1 year. Repeated DAIR was not considered as treatment failure.

Results: The rate of infection-free implant survival following DAIR in a suspected early PJI was 85% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 78-91). Cultures remained negative in 20 patients, with no occurrence of infection during follow-up. A higher failure rate was seen in early PJI caused by Enterococcus faecalis (p=0.04). Multivariate analysis showed a statistically significant association between treatment failure and high C-reactive protein level (CRP >100) (odds ratio 10.0, 95% CI [1.5-70]) and multiple DAIR procedures (≥2) (odds ratio 5.0, 95%CI [1.1-23]).

Conclusion: If an early PJI is suspected DAIR is the appointed treatment with up to 2 debridement procedures. Since culture-negative DAIRs were not related to any complications during follow-up, overtreatment of suspected PJI seems to do no significant harm with respect to implant failure.

Keywords: prosthetic joint infection, DAIR, total knee arthroplasty, total hip arthroplasty