J Bone Jt Infect 2018; 3(4):187-196. doi:10.7150/jbji.27348

Research Paper

Antibiotic Elution and Mechanical Strength of PMMA Bone Cement Loaded With Borate Bioactive Glass

Grahmm A. Funk1, Jonathan C. Burkes1, Kimberly A. Cole1, Mohamed N. Rahaman2, Terence E. McIff1✉

1. Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, United States
2. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO, United States

Abstract

Introduction: Local delivery of antibiotics using bone cement as the delivery vehicle is an established method of managing implant-associated orthopedic infections. Various fillers have been added to cement to increase antibiotic elution, but they often do so at the expense of strength. This study evaluated the effect of adding a borate bioactive glass, previously shown to promote bone formation, on vancomycin elution from PMMA bone cement.

Methods: Five cement composites were made: three loaded with borate bioactive glass along with 0, 1, and 5 grams of vancomycin and two without any glass but with 1 and 5 grams vancomycin to serve as controls. The specimens were soaked in PBS. Eluate of vancomycin was collected every 24 hours and analyzed by HPLC. Orthopedic-relevant mechanical properties of each composite were tested over time.

Results: The addition of borate bioactive glass provided an increase in vancomycin release at Day 1 and an increase in sustained vancomycin release throughout the treatment period. An 87.6% and 21.1% increase in cumulative vancomycin release was seen for both 1g and 5g loading groups, respectively. Compressive strength of all composites remained above the weight-bearing threshold of 70 MPa throughout the duration of the study with the glass-containing composites showing comparable strength to their respective controls.

Conclusion: The incorporation of borate bioactive glass into commercial PMMA bone cement can significantly increase the elution of vancomycin. The mechanical strength of the cement-glass composites remained above 70 MPa even after soaking for 8 weeks, suggesting their suitability for orthopedic weight-bearing applications.

Keywords: borate glass, bioactive glass, vancomycin, elution, strength

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How to cite this article:
Funk GA, Burkes JC, Cole KA, Rahaman MN, McIff TE. Antibiotic Elution and Mechanical Strength of PMMA Bone Cement Loaded With Borate Bioactive Glass. J Bone Jt Infect 2018; 3(4):187-196. doi:10.7150/jbji.27348. Available from http://www.jbji.net/v03p0187.htm