J Bone Jt Infect 2018; 3(3):123-129. doi:10.7150/jbji.22192

Research Paper

Antibiotic resistance profiles of deep surgical site infections in hip hemiarthroplasty; comparing low dose single antibiotic versus high dose dual antibiotic impregnated cement

Ben Tyas1✉, Martin Marsh2, Tamsin Oswald3, Ramsay Refaie4, Catherine Molyneux5, Mike Reed6

1. Foundation Doctor, University Hospital North Durham, North Road, Durham, DH1 5TW, United Kingdom
2. Clinical Research Fellow, Northumbria Specialist Emergency Healthcare Centre, Northumbrian Road, Cramlington, NE23 6NZ, United Kingdom
3. Consultant Microbiologist, Northumbria Specialist Emergency Healthcare Centre, Northumbrian Road, Cramlington, NE23 6NZ, United Kingdom
4. Clinical Research Fellow, Northumbria Specialist Emergency Healthcare Centre, Northumbrian Road, Cramlington, NE23 6NZ, United Kingdom
5. Consultant Microbiologist, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Queen Victoria Road, NE1 4LP, United Kingdom
6. Consultant Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgeon, Northumbria Specialist Emergency Healthcare Centre, Northumbrian Road, Cramlington, NE23 6NZ, United Kingdom

Abstract

Objectives: The incidence of fractured neck of femur (FNOF) is increasing yearly. Many of these patients undergo hip hemiarthroplasty. High dose dual-antibiotic cement (HDDAC) has been shown to reduce rates of deep surgical site infection (SSI) when compared to the current standard low dose single-antibiotic cement (LDSAC) in a quasi-randomised controlled trial. Some concerns exist regarding the use of HDDAC and the development of antibiotic resistance. We reviewed cases of infection in LDSAC and HDDAC bone cement with regard to causative organism and resistance profile.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was undertaken of all hemiarthroplasties within our trust from April 2008 to December 2014. We identified all patients in this time period who acquired a deep SSI. The infecting organisms and susceptibility patterns were collated for each cement.

Results: We identified 1941 hemiarthroplasties. There were 38 deep surgical site infections representing an infection rate of 3.4% in LDSAC patients and 1.2% in HDDAC patients. The majority of infections were polymicrobial. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most commonly isolated organism. It accounted for a larger proportion of HDDAC than LDSAC infections (p<0.05). Infection with Corynebacterium species and S. aureus, including MRSA, was eradicated completely with the use of HDDAC. There was no significant change in the proportion of Gram negative and Gram positive infections between the two cements. In Gram positive organisms, there was no significant change in resistance to most antibiotics. Although fewer resistant infections overall, there were significant increases in the proportion of resistance to ciprofloxacin and clindamycin with HDDAC. We observed no resistance to daptomycin or linezolid in either cement and levels of resistance remained low to rifampicin and teicoplanin. In Gram negative organisms, no significant change in resistance was observed.

Conclusions: We observed a significantly lower infection rate with the use of HDDAC compared to LDSAC. Such was this reduced infection rate that there was a trend to a lower rate of resistance with the use of HDDAC. However, there were increases in the proportion of resistant cases, most notably to clindamycin and ciprofloxacin in Gram positive organisms, possibly reflecting the higher number of S. epidermidis in the HDDAC group. Whilst the differences in our study were not found to be statistically significant, it is reassuring for teams using HDDAC to prevent SSI in hip hemiarthroplasty.

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How to cite this article:
Tyas B, Marsh M, Oswald T, Refaie R, Molyneux C, Reed M. Antibiotic resistance profiles of deep surgical site infections in hip hemiarthroplasty; comparing low dose single antibiotic versus high dose dual antibiotic impregnated cement. J Bone Jt Infect 2018; 3(3):123-129. doi:10.7150/jbji.22192. Available from http://www.jbji.net/v03p0123.htm